Europe domination in the 16th and 17th centuries

The Caroline era was dominated by the growing religious, political, and social conflict between the King and his supporters, termed the Royalist party, and the Puritan opposition that evolved in response to particular aspects of Charles' rule. Europe's colonial expansion, European countries began exploring and seeking to dominate the rest of the world during the 15th and 16th centuries, thanks to their ability to control sea routes and to the discovery of the American continent. At the end of the 19th century, there was hardly a region of the world — regions of China, Japan , the Arctic and Antarctic continents were the exceptions — into which Europeans had not extended their economic and military power, and their culture. The acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford Engraved portraits, printed descriptions and subsequently also photographs of these presentations circulated widely, purporting to convey the physical appearance, clothes, artefacts, weapons and tools of these exotic "others". Nature in the New World:
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Portugal’s maritime routes in the 16th century

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Early modern Europe

Slavery apologists went so far as to maintain that Africans were destined to be victims of Arab slave-traders or despotic local rulers, and would thus be better off under European masters. Innovation and expansion —, 2. It was an age of expansion and exploration abroad. Dieser Text ist lizensiert unter This text is licensed under: The Portuguese Indian Church was organised under his guidance.
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The Portuguese and Spanish Empires - The map as History

This new dimension shifts Europe's centre of gravity to the west during the 16th century. Nowhere was the ambivalence between ruthless hegemonic ambition on one hand and concepts such as world citizenship, cosmopolitanism and human rights, which were derived from the Enlightenment, more clear than in slavery on the other hand. The French power in India was revived under the Governorship of Lenoir and Dumas between and The role of nobles in the Feudal System had yielded to the notion of the Divine Right of Kings during the Middle Ages in fact, this consolidation of power from the land-owning nobles to the titular monarchs was one of the most prominent themes of the Middle Ages. Their ideas were studied in depth. Although China used wood-fired metallurgical technology that was superior to that of Europe in the early modern era, China lacked coal and iron deposits close enough to industrial centers to take advantage of the technology Frank It proved very difficult to gain access to China's domestic market and China's centre of political power remained remote and inaccessible.
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The three epic voyages of James Cook — [ ] between and , typical scientific expeditions organized by the Royal Society, enormously increased the European knowledge of the Pacific routes and wind patterns, island systems, flora and fauna, and populations. China was the dominant economic power and commanded a trade surplus with the rest of the world. It was granted an exclusive right to trade with India and East Indies and vested with powers of attack and conquest by the state. A distinct aspect of European discoveries and encounters with "otherness" is the transportation of non-Europeans to Europe and the West. In turn, this process also clearly shaped Europe itself. Here is a web page written by Bengalis giving a Bengali point of view.
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